The Egyptian astronomers have invented the calendar in an indeterminate period. The first certified usage of this calendar was 4236 years before the Christian period. This calendar is the same that regulates our lives today, having barely been modified for the Gregorian calendar that everybody knows today. It was passed to the Europeans when the Romans invaded Egypt in 33 BC and used in entire Europe from the 16th century. The Austro-American mathematician Neugebaeur used to say that ‘it is truly the only intelligent calendar that has ever existed in the history of humanity’. A simple calculation for the year 2014 takes us then in the year 6250 (4236+2014). And Africa entered in the year 6251 on August 3rd 2014.
The Egyptian calendar is composed of 365 days divided in three seasons. The flood (Akhet) that lasts four months, the germination (Peret) that lasts four months and finally the heat (Shemu) that lasts four months as well. Thanks to the level of the river, it was possible to predict the future quantity of grain to come by mathematic calculations. The 365 days are divided in 5 days called epagomene which come before 12 months of 30 days. The day of the New Year is based on the annual rise of the star called Sigi Tolo by the Dogons of Mali, Sirius B by Westeners.
Very long time ago the Egyptians already knew that at the end of each year, there were 6 additional hours, and that after 4 years it would become a day (leap year). But instead of adding a day every 4 years, they would rather add 1 year every 1460 years, it is to say 1 additional day [every 4 years] x 365. In the late period of the Egyptian history though, they started the rule of 1 additional day every 4 years. As Cheikh Anta Diop used to say, the genius of the Blacks of the Nile Valley is petrifying. Thousands of years of observation of the sky have been probably necessary to reach this prodigious result.
According to the Cameroonian astrophysicist and Egyptologist Jean Paul Mbeleg, given the manifest instability of the Roman power, it was an Egyptian who suggested the Europeans to adopt one day every four years instead of one year every 1460 years.
The 5 epagomene days come before Akhet (the flood season). African waters increase the level of the Nile. It is the Holy land (inner African lands) that feeds Egypt. The first epagomene day is dedicated to Usireh (Osiris) and it announces the resurrection of the flora. The personification of God’s good deed is the one who taught mankind agriculture, his spirit is therefore represented by vegetation and each 29th of July, a tree was erected to celebrate this day which is dedicated to him. This concept was taken by the Romans in the 4th century in order to invent the birth of Jesus and Christmas.
After the day of Usireh, there are the days of Aisata (Isis), of Horo (Horus), of Suteh (Seth) and of Nabintu (Nephtys). Renepet Neferet (the New Year) is therefore on the 3rd of August. The real names of the months are: Djehuty, Pa n Ipet, Hut Horo, Ka her Ka, Ta Aabet, Pa n mekher, Pa n Imana Hotep, Pa n Rennutet, Pa n Khonsu, Pa n Inet, Ip Ipi, Mesut Ra.
So, we have precisely:
- THE EPAGOMENE DAYS
From July 29th to August 2nd: days of Usireh, Aisata, Horo, Suteh and Nabintu.
- THE AKHET SEASON
From August 3rd to September 1st: Djehuty
From September 2nd to October 1st: Pa n Ipet
From October 2nd to October 31st: Hut Horo
From November 1st to November 30th: Ka her Ka
- THE PERET SEASON
From December 1st to December 30th: Ta Aabet
From December 31st to January 29th: Pa n Mekher
From January 30th to February 28th: Pa n Imana Hotep
From March 1st to March 30th: Pa n Rennut
- THE SHEMU SEASON
From March 31st to April 29th: Pa n Khonsu
From April 30th to May 29th: Pa n Inet
From May 30th to June 28th: Ip Ipi
From June 29th to July 28th: Mesut Ra.
These are testimonies from great ancient Greek scholars about the African calendar :
“They (the Egyptian priests) all agreed to saying that the Egyptians, by their study of astronomy discovered the year and were the 1st to divide it in twelve parts – and in my opinion the method of calculation is better than the Greek; for the Greeks, to make the seasons work out properly, intercalate a whole month every other year; while the Egyptians make the year consist of 12 months of 30 days each, and every year intercalate five additional days” Heredote (Calendars in Antiquity: Empires, States, and Societies; Sacha Stern, page 126.)
“They (the Egyptian priests) revealed to the Greeks the secrets of the full year, whom the latter ignored as with many other things..” Strabo, (The ancient Egyptian culture revealed), Moustapha Gadalla, page 32
By: Lisapo ya Kama © (All rights reserved. Any copying or translation of the text of this article is strictly forbbiden without the written approval of Lisapo ya Kama)
- Nations Nègres et Culture (Negro Nations and Culture), Cheikh Anta Diop, page 145.
- Civilisation ou Barbarie (Civilization or Barbarism), Cheikh Anta Diop, page 354.